The realization of a construction project involves a group of stakeholders who provide their services during the design, administrative procedures, site management, and realization of the various elements that will constitute the house or building and the reception of the completed structure. It is possible to distinguish the companies who provide technical expertise and the contractors that carry out the actual construction works, earthworks, structural works and finishing works.
Project management and general contracting companies
Any construction or renovation project requires the supervision of a project manager, also referred to as general contractor, main contractor or prime contractor for larger projects, who will supervise the works on behalf of the project owner. They can be referred to as “owner-builder” for the construction of houses or smaller projects directly supervised by the owner.
A key player in most construction projects, the architect is the designer of the architectural project creation or renovation and integration into the landscape. The architect usually bears the legal guarantee of conformity of all the elements of the project, his participation is compulsory for the design of the plans in many countries, sometimes for project with a certain minimum size.
In most cases, the architect is also responsible for other design tasks (urban planning, landscape design, interior architecture) and assumes the role of general contractor for the execution of the project and the direction of the interventions of the sub-contracting companies. In many countries only the architect is legally empowered to design the building, so the architect is the only one capable of managing a complete building construction assignment, from design to delivery.
A specialist in spatial planning, the urban planner collects and analyzes data on the terrain and the natural and urban environment. He proposes management solutions that respect the administrative guidelines and enables the construction in the best conditions.
Specialist of the design of natural environments, the landscape architect intervenes in the exterior parts of the project, gardens, green areas and enhancement of the plot of land and its vegetation.
Specialist of the interior space planning and decoration, the interior designer intervenes on ergonomics to increase the functionality of the house or building and the aesthetics of materials and colors.
For projects of significant size and / or complexity, additional expertise may be required to assist the project owner and / or to assist the project manager.
Technical and engineering specialists
Experts in a particular technical field, they bring their experience to ensure the compliance and reliability of certain constructions or specific project elements (structure, fluids…)
Specialist of the determination of the costs of operations, the economist estimates the costs during the design, controls the respect of the budgets during the interventions of the contractors, and checks the whole operations.
Expert in the geography of the construction site, the topography expert prepares topographical plans for leveling and demarcation, he performs field and building surveys. In many countries, the topography expert is the only one entitled to realizing the delimitation of land lots and properties.
Public works companies
Earthwork: leveling the ground, digging trenches for foundations.
Roads and utilities networks: linking the land lot for the access of vehicles, connection to the utilities networks of electricity, telecommunications, water waste water evacuation.
Structural works: stability and solidity of the building
- reinforced concrete
- Frames and supporting structure of metal, concrete or wood
Fittings works: water / air tightness, aesthetics and comfort of the building
- plumbers – heating/cooling specialists
- tile mason
- iron workers
Other specific actors may also be entrusted to monitor and control the construction site to ensure that all interventions are successfully carried out.
- Technical controller: contracted by the project owner to check the regulatory compliance of the materials and the solidity of the structures.
- Health and safety coordinator: responsible for the implementation of principles of prevention to ensure the safety and health of workers on the site.
- Site coordinator: tasked by the project manager to coordinate the various interventions of contractors and time management.
Finally, the services of specialized companies can also be contracted when needed for buildings with a particular purpose: scenography specialists, decorators, kitchen specialists, restaurateurs…